Mar 21

Mineral springs

Mineral waters are those that at the source contain more than 1 gram of solids per liter, biologically active microelements, free and soluble gases, and in addition have the corresponding physical properties: temperature - thermal and thermomineral waters, radioactivity, and therefore can consequently be used for therapeutic purposes.

Location of the springs – Vrnjačka Banja has 7 known springs of mineral waters, as follows: Hot mineral water spring (so-called Hot water), located in the central core area of the Spa, Snežnik-located in the zone of Vrnjačka river, Slatina - in the zone of Lipovačka river, Jezero - which is located in the spa park at the halfway from Snežnik to Slatina, Beli izvor – located near the mouth of the Lipova stream into the Lipovačka river, Borjak – the spring located 700 m away from Snežnik upstream the Vrnjačka river and Vrnjačko vrelo located at the half way of the main road Kraljevo - Kruševac. Four of the springs above mentioned are applied in spa therapy: Hot water, Snenik, Slatina and Jezero, whereas two mineral waters are bottled as table mineral water (Vrnjci water from the Hot water spring and Vrnjačko Vrelo).

Hot water is the oldest and most famous mineral spring which, judging from accidental archaeological discoveries, was known back in prehistoric period, and subsequently was used in the Roman period from the first to the fourth century AD. According to the tradition the Turks also used this water, and after they had left this region the healing springs were covered up, because people were fed up with the Turkish reign of terror and forced labour. In recent times the discovery of mineral waters is related to the cure of a sick horse of Vrnjci priest Hadži Jeftimije Popović. The first chemical analysis was carried out by Baron Herder in 1835, and with the establishment of Founding Endowment Association of Hot Mineral Water in Vrnjci new water impoundments began. In 1883 Cursalon was erected, and in 1892 first bath constructed of solid material was built. After impoundment in 1924 the pavilion with a central spring and thermo-mineral bath was erected. Deep water drillings were performed to obtain new amounts of water from 1932 to 1937. A new biveta (a specially designed construction where the spring water is routed to) building was erected in 1975. The water belongs to the category of alkaline carbo-acidic homeo-thermae with temperature of 36.5° C.

Snežnik – Although the springs of Snežnik were known as far back as in the end of 19th century, they had not been used until 1916 when, in the interest of the Austro-Hungarian officers, the springhead was cleaned and a pipe placed on the source. When The First World War was over, this water started to be used for treatments. Being grateful for her healing, a teacher Darinka Čavdarović Telebaković had the spring arranged and a drinking-fountain erected in 1920. Increased need for this water caused its impoundment to be performed soon. Bivetas with wooden porches were placed above the springs. The drinking-fountains were below the level of the surrounding ground so one needed to go down to the spring, or the water was handed by the girls in charge of that. In 1978/80 the impoundment was done for the need of a new biveta, and old pavilions were replaced by bivetas. The water belongs to the group of alkaline earth- alkaline carbo-acidic achrotopegae, and its the temperature is 17°C.

Slatina – The water "Slatina" had been known ever since the end of 19th century, but the impoundment had not been performed until 1923 when the pipe was set on the source. In 1937 the impoundment was performed and a pavilion was built over the drinking-fountain that was getting water from the spring called "Pipe", whereas the other spring, called the "Wall", was in the wall of the pavilion. Since 1937 up to 1978 there was no research work at all on the finding place of mineral water "Slatina". In that year researching boreholes were set, and in 1984 newly discovered waters were brought by pipelines to the old well in which they mix and flow through the three fountains in the newly erected biveta. The water belongs to the group of alkaline earth- alkaline achrotopegae and its temperature is 14 ° C.

Jezero – To the left side of Vrnjačka river, in the dell between "Sneznik" and "Slatina", by a small lake, in 1978 mineral water "Jezero" was discovered. A drinking-fountain was placed at the source and works resumption began in 1985 when, a dozen meters from the first one, a new borehole was drilled. For a certain while the water was used at the drinking fountain in a wooden glass enclosed pavilion, and then in 1989, on the very mineral water pool by the lake a new modern biveta was erected. The water belongs to the group of alkaline earth- alkaline carbo-acidic hypothermia and its temperature is 27 ° C.

Classification of mineral waters

On the basis of organoleptic properties (colour, muddiness), mineralization, ph value, chemical composition, carbon dioxide content and temperature, the following can be said: Hot water is colourless, transparent, sodium hydrocarbon, weakly mineralized, of low acidic pH, low acid homeotherma (T = 36.6°C). The water from the Snežnik spring is light yellow, transparent, sodium, calcium, magnesium hydro carbonated, weakly mineralized, of weakly acid pH, weakly acid, cold (T=16.8°C). The water from the Slatina spring is yellow, slightly muddy, sodium hydro carbonated, weakly mineralized, of weakly acid pH, carbon acid, of a medium concentration, cold (T =14.0°C). The water from the Jezero spring is slightly yellow, transparent, sodium hydro carbonated, weakly mineralized, of a weakly acid pH, weakly acid hypothermia (T=25.5°C). The water from the spring Beli izvor is slightly yellow, transparent, sodium, calcium hydro carbonated, weakly mineralized, of a weakly acid pH, low acid, hypothermia (T=29.5°C). The Borjak spring water is slightly yellow, slightly muddy, sodium, potassium hydro carbonated, weakly mineralized, of a weakly acid pH, low acid, cold (T=16.0°C).

Application of mineral waters

  • Mineral waters, for the indications stated below, are used in the following ways:
  • Per os (drinking), dosed on the doctor's advice,
  • Inhalation of hot mineral water
  • Bathing in hot mineral water
  • Application via enema for colon diseases
  • Vaginal sprinkling
  • eyes rinsing for chronic eye diseases
  • Diabetes
  • Digestive system diseases
  • Postoperative conditions after surgical removal of gallbladder
  • Chronic gynecological conditions and sterility
  • Infections of kidney pelvis, bladder and urinary paths
  • Urinary duct stones
  • Non - infectuous diseases of small and large intestine
  • Stomach and duodenum ulcer
  • Pancreas diseases
  • Condition after curing jaundice
  • Diseases of gallbladder and of bile ducts
  • Functional diseases
  • Conditions after resections of esophagus, stomach and intestines


Indications for adult treatment

  • Gastrointestinal system diseases: acute and chronic esophagus inflammation, esophageal reflux disease, acute and chronic inflammation of stomach and duodenum, stomach and duodenum disease without complications, conditions after the resection of stomach and duodenum, indigestion (dyspepsia), inflammatory and functional diseases of small intestine and colon (entheritis, entherocolitis, colitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable colon syndrom, after-radiation colitis).
  • Diseases of hepatho-billiar tract and pancreas: convalescence after acute infective and toxic liver inflammation, chronic liver inflammations, initial stages of hypertrophic liver cirrhosis, chronic noncalcial inflammation of gallbladder and bile ducts, postoperative conditions after surgical removal of calculus and chronic pancreas inflammation lacking in tendency for frequent aggravations.
  • Metabolic diseases: Light and medium severe forms of diabetes and obesity.
  • Kidneys and urinary tract diseases: chronic inflammations of urinary tract, microlithiasis, lithiasis with a possibility of spontaneous elimination of the calculus, postoperative conditions after surgical removal of calculus stones and urinary tract operation, toxic damage of kidneys and chronic inflammation of prostate gland.
  • Cardiovascular diseases: high blood pressure in labile form or lighter forms in a stabilized condition, and chronic peripheral circulatory disorders
  • Hematopoietic system diseases: syderopenic anemia and hypocholhydria caused anemia.
  • Rheumatic diseases: extra-joints rheumatism, degenerative rheumatism and chronic inflammatory rheumatism in remission stage.
  • Post-traumatic and post-operative conditions.
  • Gynecological disorders and illnesses: chronic inflammation of internal genital organs in remission stage, functional disorders and conditions after surgical interventions.
  • Treatment and rehabilitation of children: chronic gastric with hyper or hypoacidity, peptic ulcer disease, recurrent and chronic entherocolitis, conditions after after recovery from virus hepatitis, chronic liver disease without signs of decompensation, diabetes, microlithiasis, christalurie, conditions after removal of calculus, tendency to create recurrence of calculosis and recurrent urinary tract infections.
  • Contraindications for adults and children treatment: acute diseases, infective diseases, tuberculosis of lungs and other organs, malignant neoplasm and hematological malignancies, venereal diseases, chronic diseases in the stage of deterioration and complication, parasitic diseases, ample and frequent bleeding of any cause, cahexy, psychosis and epilepsy.


Dr Dejan M. Nešic

Mineral waters should be consumed only with the advice of a doctor!

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